The Indian Express | 1 day ago | 23-09-2022 | 05:50 pm
Essential data, facts and figures from reports, policies, schemes and important documents for UPSC-CSE. Do not forget to solve the MCQ. The Post Read Q&A will help you to self-evaluate your retention memory after reading the article.Syllabus-Prelims: Economic and Social DevelopmentMains: GS III Syllabus — Agriculture: transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.Relevance: Agriculture is one of the most important topics for Geography and Economy. There are many static and dynamic dimensions of agriculture. Often, a government report or an international report give you some insights on various of agriculture. Noticing that UPSC picks a very specific micro topic as question, this report becomes highly relevant. Though, less in data, it brings to limelight agri-techs, startups and traditional agricultural companies together. Go beyond the report and know useful information and examples of agri-tech startups in India. Enrich your agriculture related questions of GS and Essay.Why in news?FSG, a global consulting firm, has launched the Agritech Report 2022, “What’s next for Indian agri-tech? Emerging opportunities and the way forward for India’s agricultural technology sector”.This report presents the current state of Indian agri-tech in India. It highlights emerging opportunities in this field. It also recommends way forward—Traditional agriculture companies to succeed across the agriculture value chain— Agri-tech start-ups to address the stiff competition aheadWhat are the key takeaways from the report?Agri-tech startups—Start-ups are driving India’s agri-tech innovations and investment story with significant private equity inflows.—Start-ups will need an acute focus on profitability to survive an emerging ‘battle of platforms,’ as several of these players now compete for farmer attention. This situation will be exacerbated by a funding slump in the medium term amidst an overall slowdown in global investment activity.—Innovative global start-ups need to be responsible for addressing systemic barriers and building the critical ecosystem required to scale the agri-carbon market.Technology—While the first wave of Indian agri-tech focused on market linkages, several mature, late-stage start-ups are now becoming ‘full-stack’ platforms, including value-added services such as agri-fintech in their core offerings.—The next wave of agri-tech growth in India will come from technological advancements in, and increased adoption of, sustainable inputs, digital in-farm solutions (such as farm management software, remote sensing and advisory, and farm automation), novel farming systems, traceability, and agri-carbon.—Climate change has intensified the focus on agri-carbon innovations.—Technology has irreversibly disrupted the traditional agricultural value chain – from how farmers access information and inputs to how they grow and sell their produce. Stronger need to adapt to this digital transformation of agriculture. Investments in in-farm innovations, including artificial intelligence (AI) and Internet of Things (IoT) solutions, robotics/drones, and farm management software, have been growing exponentially.—The government is playing a key role in the continued mainstreaming of agri-tech in Indian agriculture, through supportive policies in each of these emerging categories.Traditional Agriculture companies—The report highlights that while traditional agriculture companies lag behind in most categories, large agrochemical players benefit from in-house R&D and a greater investment capacity. They are therefore ahead in developing, producing, and marketing sustainable and specialized inputs such as bio-fertilizers and organic fertilizers.—However, traditional agriculture companies focused on the upstream and midstream value chain, including in-farm mechanization solution providers, lag behind start-ups in most other agri-tech innovation categories.Traditional agriculture companies must embrace technology to succeed.—Whether they double down on their strengths, or expand into adjacencies, they will need to develop a few core digital capabilities such as data analytics and digital farmer networks.Why agri-tech innovations are required?—Agriculture accounts for an estimated 43% of India’s employment. Despite its importance to India’s economic and social development, the sector is fraught with challenges.—Indian farmers face increasing cost and margin pressures due to several operational issues and structural barriers, such as rising input and production costs, threats to sustainability due to climate change and intensive cultivation, labor shortage and limited mechanization, and a low share of the final price of produce.— Agri-tech innovations can address many of these challenges by making better information and technology available to farmers. This will inturn provide opportunities to farmers improve their incomes and engage in more sustainable food production.—India’s agri-tech advancements, if utilized correctly, present an excellent opportunity for sustainable and equitable growth, ensuring not only profitability for agribusinesses but also improved livelihoods for farmers.Beyond this reportAshok Gulati and Kavery Ganguly writing for The Indian Express – ‘Agritech startups have great potential in India’ highlight that agritech startups can steer the shift from government-controlled agricultural markets towards more demand-driven digital markets. Some of the key highlights of the article are:—Globally, India is competing with the US and China in the agri-startup space. According to Agfunder, India witnessed an increase in funding from $619 million in H1 2020 to $2 billion in H1 2021, behind the US ($9.5 billion) and China ($4.5 billion).—An Ernst & Young 2020 study pegs the Indian agritech market potential at $24 billion by 2025, of which only 1 per cent has been captured so far.—Currently, it is estimated that there are about 600 to 700 agritech startups in India operating at different levels of agri-value chains. Many of them use artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), internet of things (IoT), etc, to unlock the potential of big data for greater resource use efficiency, transparency and inclusiveness.—The pandemic helped them catapult and the 2020 farm laws can give them a further boost by providing a legal framework to work with the farmers through FPOs, co-operatives and other collectives.How some startups in the marketing space are empowering farmers, small agrifood operators, and giving consumers a better deal?— Ninjacart, Dehaat, and Crofarm (Otipy) are a few of the many startups that are redefining the agrifood marketplace. The novelty of startup-led value chain transformation is not limited to empowering farmers but also co-opting local grocery, mom-and-pop, and kirana stores as well as small agrifood businesses that are an integral part of the agrifood ecosystem.—At the same time, the startup network is able to leverage the bigger front-end players who demand bulk quality produce and have challenges in directly linking with farmers. This is in contrast to the earlier organised retail (big box) wave that emerged in the mid-2000s, wherein the livelihood of the unorganised retailers and small businesses was perceived to be threatened.How agritech startups have a growing footprint ?Dehaat is present in Bihar, West Bengal, Odisha, and Uttar Pradesh, working with 6,50,000 farmers through 1,890 Dehaat Centres.Dehaat Ninjacart sources fresh produce from farms and supplies to retailers, restaurants, grocery and kirana stores, and small businesses and is operational in nearly 11 cities.With a farmer network of 10,000 plus, Crofarm has served more than 1 lakh consumers and 5,000 businesses.Otipy has emerged as one of the popular app-based platforms with nearly 2 lakh customers and more than 8.25 lakh mobile downloads. It currently works with 10,000-plus resellers in Delhi NCR and also present in UP, Gujarat, and Himachal Pradesh. About 70 per cent of the resellers are women.How the agri-tech startups have had a demonstrated impacts?Ninjacart reduced wastage to 4 per cent compared to up to 25 per cent in traditional chains through demand-driven harvest schedule. Logistics optimisation enabled delivery in less than 12 hours at one-third the cost in traditional chains. Farmers’ net incomes are reported to have increased by 20 per cent.Dehaat has enabled up to 50 per cent increase in farmers’ income as a result of savings in input costs, increased farm productivity, and better price discovery.Terms you should knowAgri-tech: Agricultural technology, or agri-tech, is the use of technology in agriculture based on agricultural science, agronomy, and agricultural engineering. Agri-tech innovations could be in the form of products, services, or applications, which aim to improve yield, efficiency, profitability, and sustainability of agricultural operations.In-farm & novel farming solutions: Innovations such as artificial intelligence (AI), Internet ofThings (IoT), robotics, and data analytics that manage risks and improve farm productivity and quality, and novel farming solutions such as vertical farming and aquaculture.Agri-fintech: Agri-fintech, or fin-tech for farmers, includes digital financial products and services across the agriculture value chain, such as input credit, supply chain financing, and insurance.Agri-carbon: Agri-carbon includes regenerative farming and soil health practices (such as no-till farming and crop rotation) which can restore carbon in the soil, biomass for energy and feedstock,and the trade of carbon credits.(sources: fsg.org, ‘Agritech startups have great potential in India’)Point to ponder: Startups are creating a buzz in India by raising large sums, despite many of them currently making losses. This is because they disrupt the traditional system of doing business and leapfrog to efficiency, winning the trust of potential investors. Agri-startups are no different. Discuss.MCQ: With respect to Agriculture in India, which of the following statements is incorrecta) Agriculture Infrastructure Fund offers long term financial assistance for building infrastructure for post-harvest stage.b) India is the top producer of milk, spices, tea, jute, and rice.c) The objective of Pradhan Mantri Kisan Sampada Yojana (PMKSY) is to supplement agriculture, modernize processing and decrease Agri-Waste.d)Agriculture’s contribution in the gross domestic product (GDP) has reduced to less than 20 per cent.Answer to previous MCQ: UPSC Essentials: One word a day – AIBD, the organization (c)Post Read Q&ACan you recall what you read? 2. How some startups in the marketing space are empowering farmers, small agrifood operators, and giving consumers a better deal? 3.Why agri-tech innovations are required?
India has told Japan that tenders for electrical and signalling systems, as well as the rolling stock, for the Mumbai-Ahmedabad high-speed rail corridor should be floated without delay as land issues faced by the project appear to have been resolved.Sources said that Japan and India have agreed to put a cap on the cost of the systems and rolling stock, and that if the prices for these quoted by Japanese companies go beyond that cap, the balance will be footed by the Japanese side, outside the scope of the loan agreement for the project.This puts to rest a longstanding impasse that the project has faced, with prices for many of the critical items to be supplied by Japanese companies indicated to be up to 90 per cent higher than project consultants’ estimates.The Japanese government’s Japan International Cooperation Agency is covering 80 per cent of the cost of the bullet train project with a soft loan to India that compels the project to source critical components only from Japanese suppliers. The project is expected to cost Rs 1.6 lakh crore.Officials estimate that the Gujarat portion of the corridor will be fully operational by 2027, followed by the Maharashtra portion by 2029.“Since there is a cap agreed by both parties, and since civil works are now being executed at a fast pace, there is no roadblock to floating the systems tenders for the Japanese firms,” a source said.In the sixth meeting of the Joint Working Group for the Mumbai-Ahmedabad High Speed Project, the Indian side communicated to their Japanese counterparts that the tenders for the systems, especially the electricals and signalling, should be awarded by December-March, it was learnt.The meeting, held earlier this month, was co-chaired by V K Tripathi, the chairman and CEO of the Railway Board, and Satoshi Suzuki, the Japanese ambassador.In a major sign that the project may finally be able to put its land-related troubles in Maharashtra behind it, the National High Speed Rail Corporation, the implementing agency of the project, on Friday floated the tender for the 21-km tunnel in the state. Seven kilometres of the tunnel will be under the sea.Newsletter | Click to get the day’s best explainers in your inboxThe Indian Express had last month reported that the project was getting its land-acquisition issues sorted out under the new government in Maharashtra.The tunnel is the most complex piece of civil engineering work in the 502-km corridor. The tender for the tunnel is open to global competition, with both Japanese and Indian companies allowed to tie up with other international players to make bids.Another area of concern for the project was the procurement of the rolling stock — the actual train sets. As per Japan, only Kawasaki and Hitachi are eligible to supply the rolling stock. Sources said the Indian side had wanted to avoid a situation where both the companies jointly submit a bid, which could raise the price.However, with a price cap being agreed by both sides, this concern has been alleviated.
Even as Prime Minister Narendra Modi will inaugurate Phase-1 of the Ahmedabad-Gandhinagar Metro rail on September 30, the Commissioner of Metro Railway Safety (CMRS) has asked for a third party audit — apart from 90 other conditions to be met — to attest the structural strength and quality of tunnel segments and viaduct and piers of elevated section in the routes to be inaugurated. The CMRS also sought a technical audit of the Tunnel Ventilation System in the underground section of the Metro. It pointed out “deficiencies” such as lack of safeguard to piers against possible train derailment in a section that flies over a railway line, and expressed concern over the time taken in the underground section for evacuation of passengers, during mock drills.During inspections in August and September 2022, CMRS had spotted a number of “deficiencies” that have a direct bearing on the safety of operations and had asked the Gujarat Metro Rail Corporation (GMRC) to take “rectification measures”.The GMRC responded in September 14-15 saying the issues were sorted and that the project was safe for operations. However, the authorisation letter provided to GMRC earlier this week for the opening of Ahmedabad Metro gave a conditional authorisation, including restricting speed to as low as 45 kilometre per hour (kmph) in certain sections. The maximum speed of a metro rail is 80 kmph.Authorisation to operate the Metro to ferry people has been given separately for fully elevated North-South corridor and the East-West corridor that has both elevated and underground sections. A 6.5-kilometre route of the Ahmedabad Metro has been operational on East-West Corridor from March 2019. The PM will inaugurate the remaining 13.3-km stretch of Phase-1 connecting Thaltej and Vastral on the East-West corridor and the 18.83-km stretch on the APMC-Motera route that is part of the North-South corridor. The Gujarat government announced Saturday that both routes would be thrown open to public two days after the inauguration, which would coincide with Gandhi Jayanti. The CMRS authorisation letter, which was seen by The Indian Express, states that the North-South Corridor passes through a “vulnerable zone” adjacent to an Indian Railway line (that connects Ahmedabad to Bhavnagar), and “no special protection” has been provided to safe-guard metro piers from the impact of a possible derailment that might occur on railway lines below. Imposing a speed restriction of 60 kmph between Paldi and Old High Court stations, CMRS stated that “Metro should take needful safety measures such as suitably designed protection wall for piers and guard rail on railway track after carrying out risk analysis through NIT/IIT to ensure safety of metro trains on priority”.The CMRS pointed out that during inspection of the North-South corridor on September 2-3, it had noticed “deficiencies”, including “cracks” in piers and viaducts. “For long term stability and safety, it is advised to confirm adequacy of structural strength and quality of viaduct and piers by getting a third party audit done from IIT in three months time,” the authorisation letter stated.In the East-West Corridor, the CMRS pointed out that apart from Vodafone, there was no mobile network coverage inside the tunnel and the underground stations. “There should be continuous communication in the train inside the tunnel,” it has said.It also sought a third party audit for steel girders, for validating the design and quality of work. CMRS observed that “steel girders of non-standard span” were used at a number of locations on the metro route and “some bolts were seen missing or loose in splice and bracings”.The safety body also observed quality issues on the Sabarmati OWG (Open Web Girder) bridge and said Metro should get the deficiencies rectified and get it certified from RITES within a month. Till then, a speed limit of 60 kmph has been imposed on this bridge that passes over seven railway tracks of Indian Railways.The body also pointed out that Sabarmati Metro station was not offered for inspection and the sanction for this needed to be taken separately before opening it to public use. CMRS directed the station to be permanently closed and asked the trains to skip the station. This is an important station as it will connect metro passengers to the under construction multi-modal hub at Sabarmati which will serve passengers of bullet train, Indian Railways and BRTS.It also pointed out malfunctioning Platform Screen Doors or PSD doors at metro stations and asked director systems to certify the quality of the items. It also pointed out that some of the signalling equipment were old as it was of 2018 built-date. “This is not acceptable in new metro works and should be replaced,” the letter stated.In the East-West corridor, the CMRS noted “hair-breath cracks in tunnel segments and seepage marks” in the underground section, besides cracks, exposed reinforcements, casting errors, etc., in piers, viaducts and Sabarmati bridge.A speed limit of 60 kmph has been imposed on Sabarmati bridge, which CMRS stated has casting errors in six spans and other issues. “These shall be rectified in one month and a third party audit done through RITES to confirm structural safety,” stated the stiplulations.For the East-West Corridor, CMRS stated the Tunnel Ventilation System for the underground section needed improvement/upgradation. It sought a technical audit of the tunnel ventilation system and a fire safety clearance from the fire department. CMRS also advised a third party quality audit to confirm structural strength and quality of viaduct, piers and tunnel segments in three months’ time.CMRS inspected this corridor between Apparel Park and Thaltej stations on August 20-22 and September 4. The 6.5-kilometre stretch between Vastral Gam to Apparel Park is already operational. During the inspection, it noticed a “leaning” of one of the piers at Commerce Six roads-Gujarat University section. Imposing a 45-kmph speed restriction on this segment, the GMRC has advised remedial measures and a third party audit for examining the safety and certification of the pier.Like the Sabarmati station, the underground Kankaria East station was not offered for inspection and CMRS has asked trains to skip this station as well.CMRS also asked the GMRC to rectify malfunctioning lifts and PSD doors and install branded water coolers. The groundwork for Ahmedabad Metro — for which DPRs were drawn and redrawn since 2005 — began in March 2015. After seven years of construction, the Phase-1 of the project consisting of a little over 40 kilometres will be fully launched for commercial operations later this month.SS Rathore, Managing Director of GMRC, which is a joint venture of the Gujarat government and Government of India, said, “Every authorisation letter from CMRS is with clauses. Every Metro project gets it with conditions. They are directions and standard conditions that are put. These are standard procedures.”Not willing to discuss the conditions laid out by CMRS, Rathore said,“Some of these conditions are security related and I won’t be able to discuss it with you.” When asked about the third-party audits for reassessing the safety and structural quality of the elevated and underground corridors, Rathore said, “They had sought it even for the first 6.5 kilometres and we had done an audit through IIT three months after the operations began.” The second phase of the Metro project will connect the state capital Gandhinagar with Ahmedabad, which will essentially be the expansion of the first phase. This phase will have two corridors, including 22.8 km from Motera Stadium to Mahatma Mandir, having 20 stations and a 5.4-km route from the Gujarat National Law University to GIFT City having two stations. The entire Phase-II will be on an elevated route.
DESCRIBING A petition challenging the remission of sentence granted by the Gujarat government to him after 15 years in jail as “speculative and politically motivated”, one of the convicts in the Bilkis Bano case has questioned the locus standi of the petitioners, saying “none of” them “are related whatsoever to the said case and only happens to be either a political activist or a third party stranger”.In an affidavit filed in the Supreme Court through Advocate Rishi Malhotra, convict Radheshyam Bhagwandas Shah referred to cases in which the apex court “has consistently held in clear terms that a third party who is a total stranger to the prosecution has no ‘locus standi’ in criminal matters and has no right whatsoever in filing a petition under Article 32 of the Constitution”.He said that to entertain such petitions “would” therefore “not only unsettle the settled position of law but would also open flood gates and would be an open invitation for any member of the public to jump in any criminal matter before any court of law”.Shah was among 11 convicts in the Bilkis Bano case of gangrape and murder who were released by the Gujarat government on August 15 under its 1992 remission and premature release policy for life-term convicts after he moved the Supreme Court. Deciding his plea, the Supreme Court had ruled that although the trial in the case took place in Maharashtra, the Gujarat government would be the appropriate authority to grant remission based on the 1992 policy.Since their release, the Supreme Court has issued notices on two petitions — one filed by CPI(M) leader Subhashini Ali, journalist Revati Laul and academician Roop Rekha Verma, and another by TMC MP Mahua Moitra — challenging their release. Shah’s petition referred to the plea by Ali and others.Bilkis was gangraped and her three-year-old daughter Saleha was among 14 killed by a mob on March 3, 2002, in Limkheda taluka of Dahod district, during the post-Godhra riots. Bilkis was pregnant at the time. The Gujarat government cited a “unanimous” recommendation of the Jail Advisory Committee (JAC) to grant remission to the convicts on grounds of “good behaviour”.In his affidavit, Shah referred to another case and pointed out that similar questions had been raised when the conviction of some accused under the TADA Act was sought to be challenged under Article 32 of the Constitution by Akali Dal (M) president Simranjit Singh Mann.The Supreme Court, however, held that a petition under Article 32 of the Constitution can only be made for enforcing a fundamental right. “The Supreme Court rightly addressed the issue that the writ petitioner therein did not seek to enforce any of his fundamental rights nor did he complain that any of his fundamental rights is violated,” Shah’s petition stated.Similarly, the petition stated, in the 2013 ruling in Subramanian Swamy vs Raju matter, the Supreme Court “further reiterated the settled position of law that the jurisprudence that has evolved over the decades has assigned the primary role and responsibility at both stages to the State though…in certain exceptional situations there is a recognition of limited right in a victim or his family members to take part in the process, particularly, at the stage of the trial”.“…the law, however, frowns upon and prohibits any abdication by the State of its role at each of the stages and, in fact, does not recognise the right of a third party/ stranger to participate or even to come to the aid of the State at any of the stages,” the petition said.In this matter, the Supreme Court had dismissed Swamy’s appeal against a Delhi High Court order rejecting his prayer to be made a party before the Juvenile Justice Board in proceedings against the minor accused in the Nirbhaya gangrape case.Referring to his release under the 1992 policy, Shah’s affidavit pointed out that the Supreme Court had in a 2010 decision stated that the policy that will apply for remission is the one applicable at the time of conviction by the trial court and not a subsequent policy at the time of consideration.It submitted that in 2010, the “Court went a step further and held that in case there were two policies for premature release existing at the time of consideration, a policy which can be construed liberally in favour of a convict be applied in a case of convict”.
Hindu organisations in Bharuch have submitted memorandums to the district collector and superintendent of police demanding non-Hindus should not be allowed to play garba in pandals or grounds during the upcoming Navratri festival. The organisations also demanded that even advertisements of non-Hindu firms should not be displayed at garba venues and bouncers or orchestra teams also shouldn’t be from non-Hindu communities.Bajrang Dal South Gujarat prant president Sejalbhai Desai said, “We have taken this decision due to the rise in incidents of love jihad. Our volunteers will visit garba venues and will take action if any non-Hindus are found playing garba.”Bharuch police is organising a Navratri event at its headquarter ground for the families of policemen, government officials and others, preparations for which are in the final stage. Talking to The Indian Express, Bharuch district superintendent of police Dr Leena Patil said, “Such an event is being organised for the family members of the policemen on duty during the festival. There is no entry fees and we have extended invitation to all government departments. The event will start at 9 pm and will end at 12 noon.”The SP, however, declined to comment on the memorandum by Hindu organisations.
Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman on Saturday said that the rupee has “held back very well” against the US dollar when compared to other currencies of the world.The rupee breached the 81-mark against the dollar for the first time on Friday, before settling at 80.98, as the greenback continued to strengthen against all other major currencies following an aggressive rate hike announcement by the US Federal Reserve.When asked about the all-time low that the rupee hit against the greenback on Friday, she said the Reserve Bank of India and the Finance Ministry are keeping a very close watch on the situation.On the rising inflation, the Finance Minister said the union government was taking all possible steps to check the price-rise situation and ensure that common citizens do not suffer.Sitharaman’s comments came at the end of her three-day tour of Baramati Lok Sabha constituency.Meanwhile, taking on the opposition Maha Vikas Aghadi alliance for criticising the new Maharasthra government over the planned Vedanta-Foxconn semiconductor unit going to Gujarat, she said that those questioning the moving of plant after initially being proposed in Maharashtra should first respond on the four mega projects that were stalled during the previous government’s tenure.“One has to ask the MVA first on the four mega projects that were stalled during their tenure and then we will speak about one project that has gone to some other state from Maharashtra,” she said.Sitharaman said it was the slugfest between the ruling alliance and the opposition alliance as those in the previous government want to cover up their failures.“Those who exploited the cooperative sector did not think of setting up a separate ministry for its improvement as their efforts were to use the sector only for political gains,” she said, adding that the Central government led by Prime Minister Narendra Modi is bringing necessary changes to improve it.Newsletter | Click to get the day’s best explainers in your inboxOn her assessment after Baramati tour, where she arrived to strengthen the Bharatiya Janata Party’s (BJP) base, the union minister said, “It was focused on meeting with organisational units in the constituency. It is essential for strengthening the party and its unit. Thus, the feedback was gathered from ground onBJP and its service to people.”She said the BJP cadre in Baramati has been providing good service to the public, mainly during the Covid period, adding that the local cadres informed her that only BJP representatives were on the field for service of people in Covid time.